Electronic Voting Machines Can Not be Made Secure
Every one of these that requires programming to work (and they all do) can be used to cheat whether or not it is attached to the internet and it is very hard to prove it is not cheating. I will explain:
The usual clerk test;
The usual method to test the voting machine is to put a few ballots through the machine with a known number of votes for each party. If the result given by the machine matches the known number of votes on the ballots, then it is working properly, right? No not necessarily.
Here is an example of a program for a voting machine. Remember you have to program it to recognize votes and assign the vote to the proper candidate. When a ballot has a mark for candidate B then column B is incremented by 1 if it si for candidate B then add 1 to column B. For either case increment column S(for sum of all votes) by 1. After all ballots are counted then columns A and B correctly indicate the results. Call this routine (T for True).
Another routine might be when there is a mark for candidate A, increment column S by 1 and set A = 0.48 * S, B = 0.52 * S. When there is a mark for candidate B, increment column S by 1 and set A = 0.48 * S, B = 0.52 * S. Call this routine C (for cheat). But of course this routine would be tagged as a cheat by the clerk test.
A third program (call this routine F for the fix) could look something like this:
For S = 1 to 1200 use routine T.
when S > 1200 use routine C.
Then when the test ballots are put in (as long as there are less than 1200, the count is true. But, if there are more than 1200 voters in the precinct, the final voting results will always be 48% for A to 52% for B. Note: if the machine is hooked up to the internet, someone can switch between programs at any time, on the run and you don't need routine F. There are other ways to do this as well, like changing from T to C at a particular time or by just loading program C after the test is performed. If the machine is connected to a network, the program can be changed at any time.
This is how easy it is to cheat with voting machines. But you say this fraud can be easily determined by counting the paper ballots. Yes that is true, but 1.Usually the paper ballots are not counted; the candidate who wants the recount, must fund the recount. 2. The paper ballots can be made to agree with the machine count by destroying some and adding some new ones.
To prove a machine is not cheating:
Just before the election, a trusted computer hardware expert must inspect each circuit board on each voting machine to be sure that machine can not access the internet and be accessed remotely. That is, the expert must confirm the absence of a modem or a phone chip. Secondly, a trusted software expert must read and understand the software installed on each machine to be sure it is using only routine T and not some version of routine C. Probably there must be experts to represent each candidate in the election.
The best way is to ditch the machines and hand count ballots in every election.